Chapter 18 – Six Substances Part II – Non-Living Substances (Ajiv)

Chapter 18 – Six Substances Part II – Non-Living Substances (Ajiv)

Chapter 18 – Six Substances Part II – Non-Living Substances (Ajiv)

Chapter 18 – Six Substances Part II – Non-Living Substances (Ajiv)

Non-living Substances (Ajiv)

Anything that does not have life or consciousness is Ajiv.   Ajiv literally means without a soul and therefore, they cannot accumulate any karma.   They do not have birth, death, pleasure, or pain; they are Achetan (inert).   Examples of Ajivs are: a box, car, fan, television, photo frame, iron, watch, etc.

Jain Philosophy has classified Ajivs into the following five categories:

(1)   Dharmästikäya (Medium of Motion).

(2)   Adharmästikäya (Medium of Rest).

(3)   Äkäshästikäya (Space).

(4)   Pudgalästikäya (Matter).

(5)   Käl (Time).

Dharmästikäya (Medium of Motion)

Dharmästikäya is made up of two words: Dharma and Astikäya.   The term Dharma here does not refer to religion, but means the medium of motion.   Astikäya means collection of spaces. It denotes the medium of motion for things in the universe.   In the absence of this medium, Jiv and other matters would be unable to move.   This medium prevails in lok (cosmic space), but is absent in alok (trans cosmic space)

Its  primary  function  is  to  help  in  the  movement  of  soul  and  matter  in  a  similar  way  water provides a medium for fish  to move. It exists in the entire cosmic universe (Lokäkäsh)

Adharmästikäya (Medium of Rest)

This word is also made up of two words: Adharma and Astikäya.   Here again, Adharma does not refer to a lack of religion, but rather it means the medium of rest.   In the absence of this medium, jivs and other things would continuously move.   This medium also prevails in lok, but is absent in alok.

Its primary function is to help to rest the movement of soul and matter in a similar way. People rest in the shade of a tree. It exists in the entire cosmic universe (Lokäkäsh)

Äkäshästikäya (Space)

Äkäshästikäya is made up of two words: Äkäsha and Astikäya.   Whole space in the universe is called Äkäsha.   In Jainism, Äkäsha is divided into two parts: Lokäkäsh (Loka or cosmic space)  and Alokäkäsh  (Aloka  or  trans  cosmic  space).    Jiv,  Pudgal,  Dharmästikäya,  and Adharmästikäya exist only in Lokäkäsh.   Alokäkäsh is an empty space and does not contain any Jiv, Pudgal, Käl, Dharmästikäya, and Adharmästikäya.

The qualities are as follows:

  • Provides room to soul, matter, medium of motion, and medium of rest
  • Pervades everywhere (infinite)
  • Supports everything and thus it is self supported
  • Has no form, color, taste, smell, and touch
  • Does not perform any active action (inactive)
  • Provides accommodation to soul and matter of their actions
  • Is one and whole

Pudgalästikäya (Matter)

The word Pudgal is made up of two words: Pud means addition and Gal means division.   In other words, what continuously changes by addition and/or division is called the Pudgal or the matter.   All the matters in the universe are called Pudgals.

Matter is a nonliving substance.   It is the only substance, which possesses a physical body consisting of mass and volume.   Its qualities are as follows:

  • Possesses a physical body
  • Has qualities, which  can be perceived by our senses of touch, taste, smell, sight, and/or hearing
  • Possesses color
  • Does not have consciousness
  • Does not have any knowledge
  • Are of infinite number

The smallest particle of matter is known Paramänu (atom).  It occupies only one unit of space called Pradesha.

There are four categories of matter:

Skandha (whole matter):

Any object, which has a mass of matter, is called Skandha. e.g. stick, stone, knife, a particle of sand

Skandha-Desha (portion of matter):

Desha means a part, portion, or division.  An undetached portion of Skandha is called Skandha Desha.   When a part of the Skandha (Skandha Desha) is separated from the whole, it also becomes another Skandha. e.g. The hand of a statue is known as a Skandha Desha but when separated from the statue is known as Skandha.

Skandha-Pradesha (smallest particle of matter):

The smallest undetached portion of Skandha, which cannot be further divided, is called Skandha Pradesha.

Paramänu or Anu (atom):

When the smallest portion of the matter is separated from its Skandha, it is called Paramänu or anu.   Paramänu matter cannot be further sub-divided, cut, or pierced.

Karma or Karmic Matter (Karma Pudgal):

Karma is one of the categories of matter.  It is known as karmic matter (karma Pudgal).  Karma particles are of very fine matter and are not perceptible to the senses.   The entire universe is filled with such karmic matter. Karmic matter from eternity covers every living being.   It is the karmic matter that keeps the soul from the realization of its true nature.   It is due to karma that one feels pleasure and pain, reincarnates into different forms of life, acquires a certain type of physical body, and the duration of life.

Käl (Time)

Käl means time, which measures changes in living beings and non-living substances.   It is not the cause of such changes.   A child becomes a young person, a young person becomes an old person, and the old person dies.   In other words, something, which is new, becomes old, worn, and torn over a period of time.   All of these changes do not happen because of time. Käl is merely the measure of time, over, which those changes occur. The past, present, and future are different modes of time and are measured in terms of years, months, days,hours, minutes or seconds.   According to what is commonly known for all practical purposes, a  second  is  the  smallest measurement  of  time.    Jainism  however,  recognizes  a  very  tiny measurement of time known as Samay, which is an infinitely small part of a second. 

Two views exist in Jainism with regards to time.

(1)  Time is an imaginary thing; it has no real existence.

(2)  Time has a real existence consisting of innumerable time atoms.

The smallest indivisible portion of time is called Samay.   Combination of Samays are called moment, second, minute, hour, day, month, year, etc.

Innumerable Samays                                           One Ävali (time required to blink an eye)

16,777,216 Ävalis                                                  One Muhurt (48 minutes)

30 Muhurts                                                           One day

15 days                                                                   One fortnight

2 fortnights                                                           One month

12 months                                                             One year

5 Years                                                                   One Yuga

8,400,000 x 8,400,000 years                          One Purva (70,560,000,000,000 Years)

Innumerable years                                              One Palyopams*

10 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Palyopams    One Sägaropam

10 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sägaropams   Avasarpini or Utsarpini (Half Cycle)

20 x 10,000,000 x 10,000,000 Sägaropams    One Time Cycle

Time is infinite, without any beginning or end.   Time is divided into infinite equal time cycles (Kälchakras).   Every time cycle is further sub-divided in two equal halves.   The first half is  the progressive cycle or ascending orders, called Utsarpini.   The other half is the regressive cycle or the descending order called Avasarpini.   Every Utsarpini and Avasarpini is divided into six unequal periods called Äräs.   During the Utsarpini half cycle; progress, development, happiness, strength, age, body, religious trends, etc., go from the worst conditions to the best. During  the Avasarpini  half  cycle,  progress,  development,  happiness,  strength,  age,  body, religious trends, etc. go from the best conditions to the worst.   Presently, we are in the fifth Ärä of the Avasarpini phase.   When the Avasarpini phase ends the Utsarpini phase begins. The Kälchakra repeats and continues forever.

Each Ärä is divided into six parts.   The duration and the name of each part is as follows: The six Äräs are:

  • Sukham Sukham Käl- Happy Happy (happiness all the time).
  • Sukham Käl- Happy (happiness).
  • Sukham Dukham Käl- Happy Unhappy (happiness with some unhappiness).
  • Dukham Sukham Käl- Unhappy Happy (unhappiness with some happiness).
  • Dukham Käl- Unhappy (unhappiness).
  • Dukham Dukham Käl- Unhappy Unhappy (unhappiness all the time).

Six parts of Declining Era (Avasarpini) Time Cycle

01  Happy_happy                            4 x 1014   Sägaropams

02  Happy                                        3 x 1014   Sägaropams

03  Happy_unhappy                        2 x 1014   Sägaropams

04  Unhappy_happy                        1 x 1014   Sägaropams – 42000 years**

05  Unhappy¹                                   21000 years¹

06  Unhappy_unhappy                    21000 years

1 This is current Ärä, which began about 2500 years ago

Six parts of Rising Era (Utsarpini) Time Cycle

01  Unhappy_unhappy                    21000 years

02  Unhappy                                    21000 years

03  Unhappy_happy                        1 x 1014   Sägaropams – 42000 years

04  Happy_unhappy                        2 x 1014   Sägaropams

05  Happy                                        3 x 1014   Sägaropams

06  Happy_happy                            4 x 1014   Sägaropams

1. Sukham Sukham Käl – This is a time of great    During this phase people are very tall and live for a very long period of time.   All the needs and desires of the people are fulfilled by ten different kinds of Kalpa-vriksha (wish-granting trees).  These trees provide places to live, clothes, pots and pans, good food, fruits, sweets, harmonious music, jewelry, beautiful flowers, radiant lamps, and a bright light at night.   There is no killing, crime, or vices.   There is no need of religion an no Tirthankar exist during this time period.

2. Sukham Käl – This is also a time of happiness, but it is not great    The wish- granting trees still continue to provide for the people’s needs, but the people are not as tall and do not live as long.   There is no need of religion an no Tirthankar exist during this time period.

3. Sukham Dukham Käl – This is a phase consisting of more happiness than misery.  During this period the Kalpa-vrikshas do not consistently provide what is The first Tirthankar of a given half time cycle is born towards the end of this Ärä. Towards the end of this period in  the  current  time  cycle Rushabhdev  became  the  first Tirthankar.    He  realized  that  things were going to get worse.  So, he taught the people useful arts including, pot making, farming, and cooking to enable them to depend upon themselves.   He introduced a political system and became the first king. This Ärä came to an end  three years and eight months after the nirvana  of  Rushabhdev.   The  first  Chakravarti  (king  of  kings)  Bharat,  his  brother  Bähubali, well known for his strength, Brähmi, his sister, who devised eighteen different alphabets and, Sundari, also his sister, who devised math, were Rushabhdev’s children.

4. Dukham  Sukham  Käl  –  This  is  a  phase  of  more  misery,  sorrow,  and  suffering  than    The other twenty-three Tirthankars and eleven Chakravartis were born during this Ärä,  which  came  to  an  end  three  years  and  eight  months  after  the  last  Tirthankar  Lord Mahävir’s Nirvän.

5. Dukham Käl – This is the currently prevailing Ärä.   It is an Ärä of unhappiness, which began a little over 2,500 years ago and will last for a total of 21,000    No one born during this period will gain liberation in his or her present life, because no one will be capable to follow the true religion to the fullest extent.   It is said that by the end of this Ärä, the Jain religion will be extinct (only temporarily, to be revived in the next half cycle by future Tirthankars).

6. Dukham Dukham Käl – This is a time of great misery and unhappiness. During this time, people will experience nothing but suf   There will be no trace of religious activity.   The life span of people will be very short, exceeding no more than twenty years.   Most people will be non-vegetarian and the social structure will be destroyed.   The weather will become extreme, the days will be very hot, and the nights will be very cold.

At the end of this Ärä, a period of Utsarpini will start and the time wheel will take an upward swing.   Miseries will gradually diminish and happiness will increase until every phase is once again reached.   23 Tirthankars will be born during the 3rd  Ärä and last one during beginning the 4th   Ärä of the next half cycle. These cycles go on forever.






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